The Brooklyn Eagle in a article addressed the same reality: . In spite of the economic hardship of the immigrants, civil and social life flourished in the Italian American neighborhoods of the large Northeastern cities. Italian theater, band concerts, choral recitals, puppet shows, mutual-aid societies, and social clubs were available to the immigrants. The festa involved an elaborate procession through the streets in honor of a patron saint or the Virgin Mary in which a large statue was carried by a team of men, with musicians marching behind.
Followed by food, fireworks and general merriment, the festa became an important occasion that helped give the immigrants a sense of unity and common identity. An American teacher who had studied in Italy, Sarah Wool Moore was so concerned with grifters luring immigrants into rooming houses or employment contracts in which the bosses got kickbacks that she pressed for the founding of the Society for the Protection of Italian Immigrants often called the Society for Italian Immigrants.
The Society published lists of approved living quarters and employers. Later, the organization began establishing schools in work camps to help adult immigrants learn English. The schools focused on teaching phrases that workers needed in their everyday tasks.
Charles Borromeo. Among these was Sister Francesca Cabrini , who founded schools, hospitals and orphanages. She was canonized as the first American saint in Hundreds of parishes were founded by the St. Charles missionaries to serve the needs of the Italian communities. By , Italians had founded Italian Catholic churches and 41 parochial schools, served by priests and nuns, 2 Catholic seminaries and 3 orphanages. The destinations of many of the Italian immigrants were not only the large cities of the East Coast , but also more remote regions of the country, such as Florida and California.
They were drawn there by opportunities in agriculture, fishing, mining, railroad construction, lumbering and other activities underway at the time. Oftentimes, the immigrants contracted to work in these areas of the country as a condition for payment of their passage. It was not uncommon, especially in the South, for the immigrants to be subjected to economic exploitation, hostility and sometimes even violence.
A number of towns, such as Roseto, Pennsylvania,  Tontitown, Arkansas,  and Valdese, North Carolina  were founded by Italian immigrants during this era. A number of major business ventures were founded by Italian Americans. Amadeo Giannini originated the concept of branch banking to serve the Italian American community in San Francisco. He founded the Bank of Italy, which later became the Bank of America.
2 eras, 1 dream: Photos of immigrants on Ellis Island and today's Syrian refugees
His bank also provided financing to the film industry developing on the West Coast at the time, including that for Walt Disney's Snow White , the first full-length animated motion picture to be made in the U. An Italian immigrant, Italo Marciony Marcioni , is credited with inventing the earliest version of an ice cream cone in Another Italian immigrant, Giuseppe Bellanca , brought with him in an advanced aircraft design, which he began producing. It was Charles Lindbergh 's first choice for his flight across the Atlantic, but other factors ruled this out; however, one of Bellanca's planes, piloted by Cesare Sabelli and George Pond, made one of the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flights in An Italian immigrant, Attilio Piccirilli , and his five brothers carved the Lincoln Memorial , which they began in and completed in Italian construction workers helped build Washington's Union Station, considered one of the most beautiful in the country, which was begun in and completed in The six statues that decorate the station's facade were sculpted by Andrew Bernasconi between and Italian conductors contributed to the early success of the Metropolitan Opera of New York founded in , but it was the arrival of impresario Giulio Gatti-Casazza in , who brought with him conductor Arturo Toscanini , that made the Met an internationally known musical organization.
Many Italian operatic singers and conductors were invited to perform for American audiences, most notably, tenor Enrico Caruso. The premiere of the opera La Fanciulla del West on December 10, , with conductor Toscanini and tenor Caruso, and with the composer Giacomo Puccini in attendance, was a major international success as well as an historic event for the entire Italian American community.
Italian Americans became involved in entertainment and sports. Rudolph Valentino was one of the first great film icons. Dixieland jazz music had a number of important Italian American innovators, the most famous being Nick LaRocca of New Orleans, whose quintet made the first jazz recording in Ralph DePalma won the Indianapolis in Italian Americans became increasingly involved in politics, government and the labor movement. Andrew Longino was elected Governor of Mississippi in Numerous Italian Americans were at the forefront in fighting for worker's rights in industries such as the mining, textiles and garment industries, the most notable among these being Arturo Giovannitti , Carlo Tresca and Joseph Ettor.
The Italian American community wholeheartedly supported the war effort and its young men, both American-born and Italian-born, enlisted in large numbers in the American Army. Another Italian Americans 83 Italian born were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross , the second highest decoration. The war, together with the restrictive Emergency Quota Act of , Immigration Act of and the implementation of the discriminatory National Origins Formula heavily curtailed Italian immigration.
By , the Little Italies had stabilized and grown considerably more prosperous as workers were able to obtain higher-paying jobs, often in skilled trades. English was now the language most commonly heard on the streets of the Little Italies. In the post-war years, jobs as policemen, firemen and civil servants became available to Italian Americans; while others found employment as plumbers, electricians, mechanics and carpenters. Women found jobs as civil servants, secretaries, dressmakers, and clerks.
With better paying jobs they moved to more affluent neighborhoods outside of the Italian enclaves. The Great Depression — had a major impact on the Italian American community, and temporarily reversed some of the earlier gains made. Many unemployed men and a few women found jobs on President Franklin D. In the s and s Italian Americans contributed significantly to American life and culture via, politics, music, film, the arts, sports, the labor movement and business.
He was the first Catholic to receive a major party presidential nomination, as Democratic candidate for president in He lost Protestant strongholds in the South, but energize the Democratic vote in immigrant centers across the entire North. Angelo Rossi was mayor of San Francisco in — In —34 Ferdinand Pecora led a Senate investigation of the Wall Street Crash of , which exposed major financial abuses, and spurred Congress to rein in the banking industry.
The Metropolitan Opera continued to flourish under the leadership of Giulio Gatti-Casazza , whose tenure continued until Rosa Ponselle and Dusolina Giannini , daughters of Italian immigrants, performed regularly at the Metropolitan Opera and became internationally known. Ruggiero Ricci , a child prodigy born of Italian immigrant parents, gave his first public performance in at the age of 10, and had a long international career as a concert violinist.
Popular singers of the period included Russ Columbo , who established a new singing style that influenced Frank Sinatra and other singers that followed. Other Italian American musicians and performers, such as Jimmy Durante , who later achieved fame in movies and television, were active in vaudeville. The film industry of this era included Frank Capra , who received three Academy Awards for directing and Frank Borzage , who received two Academy Awards for directing.
The voice of Snow White was provided by Adriana Caselotti , a year-old soprano. Open Tournaments in Pete DePaolo won the Indianapolis in Tony Canzoneri won the lightweight boxing championship in Joe DiMaggio , who was destined to become one of the most famous players in baseball history, began playing for the New York Yankees in Hank Luisetti was a three time All-American basketball player at Stanford University from to Louis Zamperini , the American distance runner , competed in the Olympics , and later became the subject of the bestselling book Unbroken by Laura Hillenbrand , published in , and a movie of the same title.
Italian Americans continued their significant involvement in the labor movement during this period. Italian American businessmen specialized in growing and selling fresh fruits and vegetables, which were cultivated on small tracts of land in the suburban parts of many cities. In California, the DiGiorgio Corporation was founded, which grew to become a national supplier of fresh produce in the United States. Italian Americans in California were leading growers of grapes, and producers of wine. Many well known wine brands, such as Mondavi , Carlo Rossi , Petri , Sebastiani, and Gallo emerged from these early enterprises.
Italian American companies were major importers of Italian wines, processed foods, textiles, marble and manufactured goods. Over 1. Some Italians were outspoken admirers of Mussolini, while others had never taken out American citizenship. Those viewed as a potential threat to the country were interned in detention camps, some for up to 2 years. As many as , others, who had not become citizens, were required to carry identity cards identifying them as "resident alien".
Thousands more on the West Coast were required to move inland, often losing their homes and businesses in the process. A number of Italian-language newspapers were forced to close because of their past support of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Political refugees from Mussolini's regime, they disagreed among themselves whether to ally with Communists and anarchists or to exclude them.
The Mazzini Society joined together with other anti-Fascist Italian expatriates in the Americas at a conference in Montevideo , Uruguay in They unsuccessfully promoted one of their members, Carlo Sforza , to become the post-Fascist leader of a republican Italy. The Mazzini Society dispersed after the fall of Mussolini as most of its members returned to Italy.
Italian Americans served with distinction during the war, and 14 were awarded the Medal of Honor. Among these was Sgt. In the air, Capt. Don Gentile became one of the war's leading aces, with 25 German planes destroyed. Biagio Max Corvo, an agent of the U. Office of Strategic Services O. He led the Italian Secret Intelligence branch of the O. Corvo was awarded the Legion of Merit for his efforts during the war. The work of Enrico Fermi was crucial in developing the atom bomb.
Fermi, a Nobel Prize laureate nuclear physicist, who immigrated to the United States from Italy in , led a research team at the University of Chicago that achieved the world's first sustained nuclear chain reaction , which clearly demonstrated the feasibility of an atom bomb. Fermi later became a key member of the team at Los Alamos Laboratory that developed the first atom bomb.
Civil Wars. World War II ended the unemployment and relief that characterized the s, opening up new employment opportunities for large numbers of Italian Americans. Much of the Italian American population was concentrated in urban areas where the new munitions plants were located. Many Italian American women took war jobs, such as Rose Bonavita, who was recognized by President Roosevelt with a personal letter commending her for her performance as an aircraft riveter. She, together with a number of other women workers, provided the basis of the name, "Rosie the Riveter", which came to symbolize all of the millions of American women workers in the war industries.
Chef Boyardee , the company founded by Ettore Boiardi , was one of the largest suppliers of rations for U. For his contribution to the war effort, Boiardi was awarded a gold star order of excellence from the United States War Department.
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From the onset of the war, and particularly following Pearl Harbor many viewed Italian Americans with suspicion. Roosevelt issuing Executive Order No. Thousands of Italians were arrested, and hundreds of Italians were interned in military camps, some for up to 2 years. A number of Italian-language newspapers were forced to close. The findings concluded that:.
Long Island Italians by Salvatore J. LaGumina | Arcadia Publishing Books
In , California officially issued an apology to the Italian Americans whose civil liberties had been violated. Italians continued to immigrate to the United States, and an estimated , arrived in the decades following the war. Many of the new arrivals had professional training, or were skilled in various trades. The post-war period was a time of great social change for Italian Americans. Many aspired to a college education, which became possible for returning veterans through the GI Bill. With better job opportunities and better educated, Italian Americans entered mainstream American life in great numbers.
The Italian enclaves were largely abandoned by the younger generation, who more often chose to live in other urban areas and in the suburbs. Many married outside of their ethnic group, most frequently with other ethnic Catholics, but increasingly also with those of diverse religious and ethnic backgrounds. Italian Americans took advantage of the new opportunities that generally became available to all in the post-war decades. They made many significant contributions to American life and culture. Numerous Italian Americans became involved in politics at the local, state and national levels in the post-war decades.
Those that became U. Senate from Vermont in , and has served continuously since then; and Alfonse D'Amato , who served as U. Senator from New York from to Benjamin Civiletti served as the United States Attorney General during the last year and a half of the Carter administration, from to Numerous Italian Americans became well known in movies, both as actors and directors, and many were Academy Award recipients. Italian Americans were active in professional sports as players, coaches and commissioners. In professional football, Vince Lombardi set the standard of excellence for all coaches to follow.
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In college football, Joe Paterno became one of the most successful coaches ever. Italian Americans became nationally known in other diverse sports. Rocky Marciano was the undefeated heavyweight boxing champion from to ; Ken Venturi won both the British and U. Open golf championships in ; Donna Caponi won the U. Women's Open golf championships in and ; Linda Frattianne was the woman's U. Coffee and Conair Corporation. Italian Americans continued to serve with distinction in the military, with four Medal of Honor recipients in the Korean War and eleven in the Vietnam War.
By the close of the 20th century, Italian Americans had achieved education, employment and income parity with Americans in general. They had excelled in all fields of endeavor, and had made substantial contributions in virtually all areas of American life and culture. Italian Americans had served with distinction in all of America's wars, and over thirty had been awarded the Medal of Honor.
A number of Italian Americans were serving as top-ranking generals in the military, including Anthony Zinni , Raymond Odierno , Carl Vuono and Peter Pace , the latter three having also been appointed Chief of Staff of their respective services. At the close of the 20th century, 31 men and woman of Italian descent were serving in the U. House and Senate. Supreme Court justices. Over two dozen Italian Americans were serving in the Catholic Church as bishops.
Italian Americans were responsible for major breakthroughs in engineering, medicine and science. Federico Faggin developed the first micro-chip and micro-processor; Robert Gallo led research that identified a cancer-causing virus, and also the AIDS virus; Anthony Fauci conducted significant research that led to the discovery of the AIDS virus; Riccardo Giacconi developed the X-ray telescope; and Enrico Fermi ushered in the nuclear-power age. At the close of the 20th century, according to the National Italian American Foundation , 82 of the 1, largest U.
Americans of Italian descent were well known television personalities. Current-affairs and financial-show hosts included Maria Bartiromo and Neil Cavuto. Italian Americans had changed the eating habits of America. An increasing number of Italian dishes were known and enjoyed. Within a century of the period of peak immigration, Italian Americans had achieved prominence in politics, the judiciary, business, the professions, the military and the Catholic hierarchy. They were counted among the country's best known sports and entertainment figures.
In the s, Italian Americans voted heavily Democratic. By more than twice as many Italian American legislators as in served in the six states with the most Italian Americans. Congress includes Italian Americans who are leaders in both the Republican and Democratic parties. Rick Santorum won many primaries in his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination. Geraldine Ferraro was the first woman on a major party ticket, running for Vice President as a Democrat in They are joined by more than associate members, who are not Italian American but have large Italian American constituencies.
Bill Pascrell of New Jersey and Rep. Pat Tiberi of Ohio. The NIAF hosts a variety of public policy programs, contributing to public discourse on timely policy issues facing the nation and the world. They helped elect Fiorello La Guardia a Republican as mayor in , and helped reelect him in , and They rallied for Vincent R. Impellitteri a Democrat in , and Rudolph W.
Giuliani a Republican in when he lost , and in and when he won. All three Italian Americans aggressively fought to reduce crime in the city; each was known for his good relations with the city's powerful labor unions. Italian Americans have played a prominent role in the economy of the United States, and have founded companies of great national importance, such as Bank of America by Amadeo Giannini in , and many companies that have contributed to the local culture and character of U.
Italian Americans have also made important contributions to the growth of the U. About two thirds of America's Italian immigrants arrived during — Many were of agrarian backgrounds, with little formal education and industrial skills, who became manual laborers heavily concentrated in the cities. Others came with traditional Italian skills as: tailors; barbers; bricklayers; stonemasons; stone cutters; marble, tile and terrazzo workers; fishermen; musicians; singers; shoe makers; shoe repairers; cooks; bakers; carpenters; grape growers; wine makers; silk makers; dressmakers; and seamstresses.
Others came to provide for the needs of the immigrant communities, notably doctors, dentists, midwives, lawyers, teachers, morticians, priests, nuns, and brothers. Many of the skilled workers found work in their speciality, first in the Italian enclaves, and eventually in the broader society.
Traditional skills were often passed down from father to son, and from mother to daughter. Italian women who arrived during the period of mass immigration had to adapt to new and unfamiliar social and economic conditions. Mothers, who had the task of raising the children and providing for the welfare of the family, commonly demonstrated great courage and resourcefulness in meeting these obligations, often under adverse living conditions. Their cultural traditions, which placed the highest priority on the family, remained strong as Italian immigrant women adapted to these new circumstances.
Married women typically avoided factory work and chose home-based economic activities such as dressmaking, taking in boarders, and operating small shops in their homes or neighborhoods. Italian neighborhoods also proved attractive to midwives , women who trained in Italy before coming to America. Many of the who died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in were Italian-American women. Angela Bambace was an year-old Italian American organizer for the International Ladies Garment Workers Union in New York who worked to secure better working conditions and shorter hours for women workers in the garment industry.
The American scene in the s featured a widespread expansion of women's roles, starting with the vote in , and including new standards of education, employment and control of their own sexuality. The Italian-American media disapproved. It demanded the holding of the line regarding traditional gender roles in which men controlled their families. Many traditional patriarchal values prevailed among Southern European male immigrants, although some practices like dowry were left behind in Europe.
The community spokesmen were shocked at the notion of a woman marking her secret ballot. They ridiculed flappers and proclaimed that feminism was immoral. They idealized an old male model of Italian womanhood. Mussolini was popular with readers and subsidized some papers, so when he expanded the electorate to include some women voting at the local level, the Italian American editorialists applauded him, arguing that the true Italian woman was, above all, a mother and a wife and, therefore, would be reliable as a voter on local matters but only in Italy.
Feminist organizations in Italy were ignored, as the editors purposely associated emancipation with Americanism and transformed the debate over women's rights into a defense of the Italian-American community to set its own boundaries and rules. Food was a major concern, and recipes were presented which adjusted to the availability of ingredients in the American market.
Food supplies were limited in Italy by poverty and strict import controls, but abundant in America, so new recipes were needed to take advantage. In the second and third generations, opportunities expanded as women were gradually accepted in the workplace and as entrepreneurs. Women also had much better job opportunities because they had a high school or sometimes college education, and were willing to leave the Little Italies and commute to work. After the war, Italian American women had much greater freedom in choosing a career, and seeking higher levels of education.
Consequently, the second half of the 20th century was a period in which Italian American women excelled in virtually all fields of endeavor. They were responsible for a significant number of firsts:. The National Organization of Italian American Women NOIAW , founded in , is an organization for women of Italian heritage committed to preserving Italian heritage, language and culture by promoting and supporting the advancement of women of Italian ancestry. The culture the Italian immigrants brought with them was generally not the high Italian culture of Dante and Michelangelo , but the culture of the region or village from which they came.
These individual but related cultures established the basis of contemporary Italian American culture. A University of Chicago study  of fifteen ethnic groups showed that Italian Americans were among those groups having the lowest percentages of divorce, unemployment, people on welfare and those incarcerated. On the other hand, they were among those groups with the highest percentages of two-parent families, elderly family members still living at home, and families who eat together on a regular basis.
Italian-American culture, and transplanted Italian culture , have influenced American culture in a variety of ways, such as: restaurants,  foods ,  coffees and desserts; wine production in California and elsewhere in the U. The Italian American Museum in New York City, established in , is dedicated to the struggles of the Italian immigrants and their descendants, and to their achievements and contributions to American culture and society.
The Italic Institute of America  is dedicated to fostering and preserving knowledge of the classical Italian heritage of American society, through the Latin language and Greco-Roman-Etruscan civilization, as well as 5 centuries of contributions to American society by Italians and their descendants.
Additionally, two major Italian American fraternal and service organizations, Order Sons of Italy in America and Unico National , actively promote knowledge of Italian American history and culture. Each year it focuses on a theme representative of the history and culture of Italy and Italian Americans. The works of a number of early Italian-American authors and poets, born of immigrant parents, were published in the first half of the 20th century. Pietro Di Donato , born in , was a writer best known for his novel, Christ in Concrete , which was hailed by critics in the United States and abroad as a metaphor for the immigrant experience in America.
She is best known for her series of biographies of 19th Century English writers. She was also a frequent translator of classic Italian works into English, and published several romantic novels set during historical events. John Ciardi , born in , was primarily a poet. Among his works is a highly respected English-language rendition of Dante 's Divine Comedy. John Fante , born in , was a novelist, short story writer and screenwriter. Helen Barolini's The Dream Book: An Anthology of Writings by Italian American Women was the first anthology that pulled together the historic range of writing from the late 19th century to the s.
It exhibited the wealth of fiction, poetry, essays, and letters, and paid special attention to the interaction of Italian American women with American social activism. Ferlinghetti was also the co-founder of City Lights Bookstore , a San Francisco bookstore and publishing company that published much of the work of other Beat Generation writers. A scholarly literature has also emerged that critiques the literary output.
Common themes include conflicts between marginal Italian American and mainstream culture, and tradition-bound immigrant parents opposed by their more assimilated children. She is especially interested in showing how authors portrayed the many configurations of family relationships, from the early immigrant narratives of journeying to a new world, through novels that stress intergenerational conflicts, to contemporary works about the struggle of modern women to form nontraditional gender roles.
At Brooklyn College, Dr. As a result of the efforts of magazines like Voices in Italian Americana , Ambassador , a publication of the National Italian American Foundation and Italian Americana , edited by Carol Bonomo Albright , Italian Americans have been reading more works of their own writers. A supplemental website at www. Dana Gioia, was Poetry Editor of Italian Americana from to , followed by poet Michael Palma, who also selects poems for Italian Americana ' s webpage supplement.
As of , twelve books have been published in the bilingual series from Bordighera Press. Tomasulo have made significant contributions to film scholarship as authors, editors, and educators. Italian Americans have written not only about the Italian American experience but, indeed, the human experience. The vast majority of Italian Americans are Catholics , at least nominally. Most of these Jesuits left their homeland involuntarily, expelled by Italian nationalists in the successive waves of Italian unification that dominated Italy.
In addition to their pastoral work, they founded numerous high schools and colleges, including Regis University , Santa Clara University , the University of San Francisco , and Gonzaga University. Joseph's tables", where meatless dishes are served for the benefit of the communities' poor. Columbus Day is also widely celebrated, as are the feasts of some regional Italian patron saints. Started by Italian immigrants from Montefalcione, a small town near Naples, Italy in , the feast is widely considered the largest and most authentic Italian Religious festival in the United States.
Over vendors and , people attend the feast over a 3-day period in August. San Gennaro September 19 is another popular saint, especially among Neapolitans. Santa Rosalia September 4 , is celebrated by immigrants from Sicily. San Rocco is the patron saint of Potenza, as is San Gerardo.
Many still celebrate the Christmas season with a Feast of the Seven Fishes. On this feast day, people will pin money on a Blessed Virgin Mary statue as a symbol of prosperity. For almost 25 years, Cleveland Bishop Anthony Pilla participated in the parade and Mass to celebrate his Italian heritage. Bishop Pilla retired in April , but continues to participate. While most Italian-American families have a Catholic background, there are converts to Protestantism as well.
In the early 20th century, about Protestant missionaries worked in urban Italian American neighborhoods. Some have joined the Episcopal Church , which still retains much of the Catholic liturgical form. Some have converted to evangelical churches. Fiorello La Guardia was an Episcopalian on his father's side; his mother was from the small but significant community of Italian Jews. There is a small charismatic denomination, known as the Christian Church of North America , which is rooted in the Italian Pentecostal Movement that originated in Chicago in the early 20th century.
The Church of Jesus Christ Bickertonite , a denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement , which is headquartered in Monongahela, Pennsylvania , counts significant numbers of Italian Americans in its leadership and membership. The Jewish emigration from Italy was never of a magnitude that resulted in the formation of Italian-Jewish communities in the United States.
Religious Italian Jews integrated into existing Jewish communities without difficulty, especially in Sephardic communities; and those who were secular found Jewish secular institutions in the United States ready to welcome them. Despite their small numbers, Italian American Jews have had a great impact on American life,  starting with Lorenzo Da Ponte born Emanuele Conegliano , Mozart's former librettist, opera impresario and first Professor of Italian at Columbia College in New York where he lived from to his death in From a religious point of view the figure of greatest influence is that of Rabbi Sabato Morais who, at the end of the nineteenth century, was the leader of the large Sephardic community of Philadelphia and, in , one of the founders of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York, where he became the first dean.
Congress — and — , and a popular Mayor of New York — A descendant on his mother's side of the great Italian rabbi Samuel David Luzzatto , La Guardia could address his constituency in both Italian and Yiddish. Donald R. Ornitz, April 15, Captured Japanese photograph taken aboard a Japanese carrier before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, December 7, Captured Japanese photograph taken during the December 7, , attack on Pearl Harbor. In the distance, the smoke rises from Hickam Field. Along the March [on which] these prisoners were photographed, they have their hands tied behind their backs.
Jap machine gun fire from the right flank makes it more difficult for them. Robert M. Howard, December 26, Kent Rooks, May 18, Attacking at the break of day in a heavy rainstorm, the first Americans ashore huddle behind tree trunks and any other cover they can find. Two U. Marines and Army assault troops landed on the Central Pacific island on July 20, Gilbert Islands. At night the Japs would infiltrate American lines. At Dawn, the doughboys went out and killed them. This photo shows tank going forward, infantrymen following in its cover. These machine gunners pushed them back.
The mother, four children and a dog, took shelter from the fierce fighting in that area. Angus Robertson, June 21, Angus Robertson, ca. His face is grimey with coral dust but the light of battle stays in his eyes. They are U. Two 5'' mm guns are ready while inboard 20mm anti-aircraft crews are ready to act. Ted Needham. Douglas MacArthur wades ashore during initial landings at Leyte, P.
Here, a gun pumps a stream of shells into Jap positions inland on the tiny volcanic island. February Warren, ca. In the lower background is the smoke of battle as Marine units move in to follow up with a Sunday punch. David D. Duncan, ca. The division is working to take Wana Ridge before the town of Shuri. Walter F. Kleine, Okinawa, Lemuel Shepherd , commanding general of the 6th Marine Division, relaxes on an Okinawan ridge long enough to consult a map of the terrain.
Sam Weiner, ca. Charles Kerlee, February Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. B Superfortress. In the background, a Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill in Nagasaki. Prisoners in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen, Germany , December 19, Jewish civilians : copy of a German photograph taken during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, Poland, We took 50, prisoners in December alone. Nuremberg Trials: looking down on the defendants' dock. Anton Dostler is tied to a stake before his execution by a firing squad in the Aversa stockade.
The General was convicted and sentenced to death by an American military tribunal. Aversa, Italy.
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It was against Japanese regulations and discovery would have meant death, but the men celebrated the occasion anyway. Horace Bristol, ca. May Sam Gilbert, May 12, Miller, Germany, April 16, He was one of prisoners savagely burned to death by Nazi SS troops. Allen, Gardelegen, Germany, April 16, Men were worked in nearby stone quarries until too weak for more, then killed. The bodies were about to be disposed of by burning when the camp was captured by troops of the 3rd U. Chichersky, April 14, Prisoners of all nationalities were tortured and killed.
Edward Belfer. May 17, At p. Historians believe the number who died was between Dear and M. Foot, Oxford University Press, , p. Belgium, ca. December He committed suicide rather than face U.
Army troops who captured the city on April This execution took place in Rennes, France. Picture shows Pedro Cerono, the man who discovered the group of 8 skulls. Lewis D. Klein, November 23, Arthur Green. Moore, Germany, May 7, Melvin Weiss, England, May 7, Lempeotis, August 10, They threw anything and kissed anybody in Times Square.
Victor Jorgensen, August 14, Behind Gen. MacArthur are Lt. Like I stated, this is a commonplace tale. Now, most Italian Americans are solidly middle class, although, for many reasons, mostly having to do with the global economy, this status seems to be in danger of slipping. And this last fact is what brings me to our subject. Not everything we do is worthy of pride. After all, when threatened, we have been just as quick to sign our names to the proclamations of dictators as we have been to sign our names to the advancement of science and freedom. Unfortunately, this is a trend that has not changed:.
Now, I can understand a difference in politics. However, what we have been experiencing is something different altogether. The virulent rise of jingoism and xenophobia; the Islamophobia; the cutting and beating of the sciences and arts. I want you to especially keep this last screenshot in mind.
Because now, I would like to show you just how our families did in Robert E. Our great grandparents, our ancestors, were perceived as dangerous, as subhuman, as possessing an almost barbaric proclivity towards crime and feudal servitude. This should sound familiar. They were also suspected of being terrorists. However, let me show you some other things, if this is not enough. Let me show you what our families looked like, for comparison, when they arrived in this country, penniless and bereft:. Many faces in our families bear the mark of North Africa.
Just as much as we are European, our families also show the beauty of the Mediterranean and the Levant. In fact, Sicily was an emirate. The Emirate of Sicily existed as an Islamic state from to Italy, as a nation, has only existed since March 17, Sicily was home to an emirate for a longer period of time than Italy has existed, thus far. So many in our community stand in opposition to those with less power, or who they perceive as different, just like others stood in opposition to ours when they suffered the same.
Hostility, also, was not restricted to the South. How they were shamed there, and elsewhere in the States. I want to show you the fear they were forced to feel, and the righteous indignation they swallowed for your benefit. I want you to see how this country treated the people you love, or who your relatives loved time ago, even as they served our country:. My sisters and brothers, my aunties and uncles, my cousins, I love you. But what have we become? Given a single truffle, how quick we have become wolves. How quick we have turned our backs on our grandparents, and their parents.