This phase has sometimes incorrectly been credited to Pope Gregory I who reigned from to CE , who, like his predecessors, represented to the people of the Roman world a church that was still identified with the empire. Unlike some of those predecessors, Gregory was compelled to face the collapse of imperial authority in northern Italy.
As the leading civil official of the empire in Rome, he was compelled to take over the civil administration of the cities and negotiate for the protection of Rome itself with the Lombard invaders threatening it. Another part of this phase occurred in the 8th century, after the rise of the new religion of Islam had weakened the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards had renewed their pressure in Italy. The popes finally sought support from the Frankish rulers of the West and received from the Frankish king Pepin The Short the first part of the Italian territories later known as the Papal States.
This attack spawned the protracted civil and ecclesiastical strife in Germany and Italy known as the Investiture Controversy. At issue was who, the pope or the monarchs, had the authority to appoint invest local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries. The conflict ended in , when Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II agreed on the Concordat of Worms, which differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops.
However, the emperor did retain considerable power over the Church. Both these efforts, although ultimately unsuccessful, greatly enhanced papal prestige in the 12th and 13th centuries.
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Such powerful popes as Alexander III r. Throughout the rest of the Middle Ages, popes struggled with monarchs over power. Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship. Monasticism became quite popular in the Middle Ages, with religion being the most important force in Europe.
Monks and nuns were to live isolated from the world to become closer to God. Monks provided service to the church by copying manuscripts, creating art, educating people, and working as missionaries. Convents were especially appealing to women. It was the only place they would receive any sort of education or power. It also let them escape unwanted marriages. From the 6th century onward most of the monasteries in the West were of the Benedictine Order.
He then attracted followers with whom he founded the monastery of Monte Cassino, between Rome and Naples, around He established the Rule, adapting in part the earlier anonymous Rule of the Master Regula magistri , which was written somewhere south of Rome around , and defined the activities of the monastery, its officers, and their responsibilities.
Early Benedictine monasteries were relatively small and consisted of an oratory, a refectory, a dormitory, a scriptorium, guest accommodation, and out-buildings, a group of often quite separate rooms more reminiscent of a decent-sized Roman villa than a large medieval abbey. A monastery of about a dozen monks would have been normal during this period. Medieval monastic life consisted of prayer, reading, and manual labor. Apart from prayer, monks performed a variety of tasks, such as preparing medicine, lettering, and reading. These monks would also work in the gardens and on the land.
They might also spend time in the Cloister, a covered colonnade around a courtyard, where they would pray or read. Some monasteries held a scriptorium where monks would write or copy books. When the monks wrote, they used very neat handwriting and would draw illustrations in the books. As a part of their unique writing style, they decorated the first letter of each paragraph. The monasteries were the central storehouses and producers of knowledge. The next wave of monastic reform after the Benedictines came with the Cistercian movement. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to a literal observance of the Benedictine Rule, rejecting the developments of the Benedictines.
The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, and especially to field work. Inspired by Bernard of Clairvaux, the primary builder of the Cistercians, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe.
By the end of the 12th century the Cistercian houses numbered , and at its height in the 15th century the order claimed to have close to houses. Most of these were built in wilderness areas, and played a major part in bringing such isolated parts of Europe into economic cultivation. During the rule of Pope Innocent III — , two of the most famous monastic orders were founded. They were called the mendicant, or begging, orders because their members begged for the food and clothes. At their foundation these orders rejected the previously established monastic model of living in one stable, isolated community where members worked at a trade and owned property in common, including land, buildings, and other wealth.
By contrast, the mendicants avoided owning property, did not work at a trade, and embraced a poor, often itinerant lifestyle. They depended for their survival on the goodwill of the people to whom they preached. They would usually travel in pairs, preaching, healing the sick, and helping the poor. Francis of Assisi founded the order of the Franciscans, who were known for their charitable work. The Dominicans, founded by Saint Dominic, focused on teaching, preaching, and suppressing heresy. The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when religion was starting to be contemplated in a new way.
Men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they traveled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Like his contemporary, Francis, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, and the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need.
The inspiration for the Franciscan Order came in when Francis heard a sermon on Matthew that made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance.
Francis was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, and by other companions, who are said to have reached eleven within a year. The brothers lived in the deserted leper colony of Rivo Torto near Assisi, but they spent much of their time traveling through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression on their hearers by their earnest exhortations.
Their life was extremely ascetic, though such practices were apparently not prescribed by the first rule that Francis gave them probably as early as , which seems to have been nothing more than a collection of Scriptural passages emphasizing the duty of poverty. Similar to Francis, Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy.
Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, and a highly developed governmental structure. They were both active in preaching and contemplative in study, prayer, and meditation.
These ideas were finally given systematic expression in the West during the Gregorian Reform movement of the 11th century. The Eastern churches viewed Rome's understanding of the nature of episcopal power as being in direct opposition to the Church's essentially conciliar structure and thus saw the two ecclesiologies as mutually antithetical.
For them, specifically, Simon Peter's primacy could never be the exclusive prerogative of any one bishop.
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All bishops must, like St. Peter, confess Jesus as the Christ and, as such, all are Peter's successors. The churches of the East gave the Roman See primacy but not supremacy, the Pope being the first among equals but not infallible and not with absolute authority. This too developed gradually and entered the Creed over time. In the final analysis, only another ecumenical council could introduce such an alteration. Indeed, the councils, which drew up the original Creed, had expressly forbidden any subtraction or addition to the text.
In addition to this ecclesiological issue, the Eastern Church also considered the Filioque clause unacceptable on dogmatic grounds. Theologically, the Latin interpolation was unacceptable since it implied that the Spirit now had two sources of origin and procession, the Father and the Son, rather than the Father alone. Photios was refused an apology by the pope for previous points of dispute between the East and West. Photios refused to accept the supremacy of the pope in Eastern matters or accept the Filioque clause.
The Latin delegation at the council of his consecration pressed him to accept the clause in order to secure their support.
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The controversy also involved Eastern and Western ecclesiastical jurisdictional rights in the Bulgarian church, as well as a doctrinal dispute over the Filioque "and from the Son" clause. That had been added to the Nicene Creed by the Latin church, which was later the theological breaking point in the ultimate Great East-West Schism in the 11th century. Photios did provide concession on the issue of jurisdictional rights concerning Bulgaria and the papal legates made do with his return of Bulgaria to Rome. This concession, however, was purely nominal, as Bulgaria's return to the Byzantine rite in had already secured for it an autocephalous church.
Without the consent of Boris I of Bulgaria , the papacy was unable to enforce any of its claims. It was the first major division since certain groups in the East rejected the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon see Oriental Orthodoxy , and was far more significant. Though normally dated to , the East-West Schism was actually the result of an extended period of estrangement between Latin and Greek Christendom over the nature of papal primacy and certain doctrinal matters like the Filioque , but intensified by cultural and linguistic differences. The "official" schism in was the excommunication of Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople, followed by his excommunication of papal legates.
Attempts at reconciliation were made in by the Second Council of Lyon and in by the Council of Basel , but in each case the eastern hierarchs who consented to the unions were repudiated by the Orthodox as a whole, though reconciliation was achieved between the West and what are now called the " Eastern Rite Catholic Churches ". More recently, in the mutual excommunications were rescinded by the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople, though schism remains.
Both groups are descended from the Early Church, both acknowledge the apostolic succession of each other's bishops, and the validity of each other's sacraments. Though both acknowledge the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, Eastern Orthodoxy understands this as a primacy of honour with limited or no ecclesiastical authority in other dioceses. The Orthodox East perceived the Papacy as taking on monarchical characteristics that were not in line with the church's tradition and violating the First Council of Constantinople of which recognized the sees of Rome and Constantinople as being equal in authority.
The final breach is often considered to have arisen after the capture and sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in Crusades against Christians in the East by Roman Catholic crusaders was not exclusive to the Mediterranean though see also the Northern Crusades and the Battle of the Ice. The sacking of Constantinople and the Church of Holy Wisdom and establishment of the Latin Empire as a seeming attempt to supplant the Orthodox Byzantine Empire in is viewed with some rancour to the present day. Many in the East saw the actions of the West as a prime determining factor in the weakening of Byzantium.
This led to the Empire's eventual conquest and fall to Islam. In , Pope John Paul II extended a formal apology for the sacking of Constantinople in ; the apology was formally accepted by Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople. Many things that were stolen during this time: holy relics , riches, and many other items, are still held in various Western European cities, particularly Venice , Italy.
Generally, the Crusades refer to the campaigns in the Holy Land against Muslim forces sponsored by the Papacy. There were other crusades against Islamic forces in southern Spain, southern Italy, and Sicily, as well as the campaigns of Teutonic Knights against pagan strongholds in North-eastern Europe see Northern Crusades. A few crusades were waged within Christendom against groups that were considered heretical and schismatic also see the Battle of the Ice and the Albigensian Crusade. Thereafter, Christians had generally been permitted to visit the sacred places in the Holy Land until , when the Seljuk Turks closed Christian pilgrimages and assailed the Byzantines, defeating them at the Battle of Manzikert.
He probably expected money from the pope for the hiring of mercenaries. Instead, Urban II called upon the knights of Christendom in a speech made at the Council of Clermont on 27 November , combining the idea of pilgrimage to the Holy Land with that of waging a holy war against infidels. The First Crusade captured Antioch in and then Jerusalem. The Second Crusade occurred in when Edessa was retaken by Islamic forces.
Jerusalem would be held until and the Third Crusade , famous for the battles between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin. This was effectively the last crusade sponsored by the papacy, with later crusades being sponsored by individuals. Jerusalem was held by the crusaders for nearly a century, and other strongholds in the Near East would remain in Christian possession much longer. The crusades in the Holy Land ultimately failed to establish permanent Christian kingdoms. Islamic expansion into Europe would renew and remain a threat for centuries culminating in the campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century.
Crusades in southern Spain, southern Italy, and Sicily eventually lead to the demise of Islamic power in Europe. In Hesychasm —a mystical teaching at Mount Athos came under attack from Barlaam of Calabria , an abbot in Constantinople. Barlaam propounded a more intellectual and propositional approach to the knowledge of God than the Hesychasts taught. Hesychasm is a form of constant purposeful prayer or experiential prayer, explicitly referred to as contemplation focusing on the idea of stillness and the characteristic mystical idea of light as the vehicle for knowing God.
Gregory Palamas , afterwards Archbishop of Thessalonica , defended Hesychasm. Several synods took one position or the other until in at a synod under the presidency of the Emperor John VI Cantacuzenus , Hesychast doctrine was established as the doctrine of the Orthodox Church. In , Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire.
By this time Egypt had been under Muslim control for some seven centuries, but Orthodoxy was very strong in Russia which had recently acquired an autocephalous status; and thus Moscow called itself the Third Rome , as the cultural heir of Constantinople. Under Ottoman rule, the Greek Orthodox Church acquired substantial power as an autonomous millet. The ecumenical patriarch was the religious and administrative ruler of the entire "Greek Orthodox nation" Ottoman administrative unit , which encompassed all the Eastern Orthodox subjects of the Empire.
Eastern Christians fleeing Constantinople, and the Greek manuscripts they carried with them, is one of the factors that prompted the literary renaissance in the West at about this time. As a result of the Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire in , and the Fall of Constantinople , the entire Orthodox communion of the Balkans and the Near East became suddenly isolated from the West. For the next four hundred years, it would be confined within a hostile Islamic world, with which it had little in common religiously or culturally.
The Russian Orthodox Church was the only part of the Orthodox communion which remained outside the control of the Ottoman Empire. It is, in part, due to this geographical and intellectual confinement that the voice of Eastern Orthodoxy was not heard during the Reformation in 16th-century Europe. As a result, this important theological debate often seems strange and distorted to the Orthodox.
They never took part in it and thus neither Reformation nor Counter-Reformation is part of their theological framework. The new Ottoman government that conquered the Byzantine Empire followed Islamic law when dealing with the conquered Christian population. Christians were officially tolerated as People of the Book. As such, the Church's canonical and hierarchical organisation were not significantly disrupted and its administration continued to function. One of the first things that Mehmet the Conqueror did was to allow the Church to elect a new patriarch, Gennadius Scholarius.
Because Islamic law makes no distinction between nationality and religion, all Christians, regardless of their language or nationality, were considered a single millet , or nation. The patriarch, as the highest-ranking hierarch, was thus invested with civil and religious authority and made ethnarch , head of the entire Christian Orthodox population.
This meant that all Orthodox Churches within Ottoman territory were under the control of Constantinople. However, these rights and privileges, including freedom of worship and religious organisation, were often established in principle but seldom corresponded to reality.
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Christians were viewed as second-class citizens , and the legal protections they depended upon were subject to the whims of the Sultan and the Sublime Porte. Under Ottoman occupation the Church could no longer bear witness to Christ. Christian missionary work among Muslims was illegal and dangerous, whereas conversion to Islam was entirely legal and permissible. Converts to Islam who returned to Orthodoxy were put to death as apostates. No new churches could be built and even the ringing of church bells was prohibited.
The Hagia Sophia and the Parthenon , which had been Christian churches for nearly a millennium, were converted into mosques. Education of the clergy and the Christian population either ceased altogether or was reduced to the most rudimentary elements. Violent persecutions of Christians were common, and reached their climax in the Armenian , Assyrian , and Greek genocides. The Orthodox Church found itself subject to the Turkish system of corruption. The patriarchal throne was frequently sold to the highest bidder, while new patriarchal investiture was accompanied by heavy payment to the government.
In order to recoup their losses, patriarchs and bishops taxed the local parishes and their clergy. Few patriarchs between the 15th and the 19th centuries died a natural death while in office. The forced abdications, exiles, hangings, drownings, and poisonings of patriarchs are well documented. The hierarchy's positions were often dangerous as well. The hanging of patriarch Gregory V from the gate of the patriarchate on Easter Sunday was accompanied by the execution of two metropolitans and twelve bishops.
The Avignon Papacy , sometimes referred to as the Babylonian Captivity, was a period from to during which seven Popes resided in Avignon , in modern-day France. Troubles reached their peak in when, Gregory XI died while visiting Rome. Urban soon alienated the French cardinals, and they held a second conclave electing Robert of Geneva to succeed Gregory XI, beginning the Western Schism.
The conflict was political rather than doctrinal. For sixty-nine years popes resided in Avignon rather than Rome. Confusion and of political animosity waxed, as the prestige and influence of Rome waned without a resident pontiff. He soon alienated the French cardinals, who asserted that the previous election was invalid, and elected one of their own, Robert of Geneva, who took the name Pope Clement VII. For nearly forty years, there were two papal curias and two sets of cardinals, each electing a new pope for Rome or Avignon when death created a vacancy. Each pope lobbied for support among kings and princes who played them off against each other.
The existing popes refused to resign; thus there were three papal claimants. Another council was convened in , the Council of Constance. He was brought back a prisoner and deposed in May. The council deposed him in July and elected Pope Martin V as pope in November, having finally cleared the field of popes and antipopes. John Wycliffe or Wyclif — was an English scholar and heretic best known for denouncing the corruptions of the Church, and his sponsoring the first translation of the Bible from Latin into English. He was a precursor of the Protestant Reformation.
He emphasized the supremacy of the Bible, and called for a direct relationship between man and God, without interference by priests and bishops. His followers, called Lollards , faced persecution by the Church of England. They went underground for over a century and played a role in the English Reformation. Jan Hus or Huss ? Hus was executed in , but his followers organized a peasants' war, —, that was put down by the Empire with great brutality. Hus was a forerunner of the Protestant Reformation and his memory has become a powerful symbol of Czech culture in Bohemia. The Renaissance was a period of great cultural change and achievement, marked in Italy by a classical orientation and an increase of wealth through mercantile trade.
On the one hand, it was a time of great artistic patronage and architectural magnificence, where the Church patroned such artists as Michelangelo , Brunelleschi , Bramante , Raphael , Fra Angelico , Donatello , and da Vinci. On the other hand, wealthy Italian families often secured episcopal offices, including the papacy, for their own members, some of whom were known for immorality, such as Alexander VI and Sixtus IV. In addition to being the head of the Church, the Pope became one of Italy's most important secular rulers, and pontiffs such as Julius II often waged campaigns to protect and expand their temporal domains.
Furthermore, the popes, in a spirit of refined competition with other Italian lords, spent lavishly both on private luxuries but also on public works, repairing or building churches, bridges, and a magnificent system of aqueducts in Rome that still function today. From to , St. Peter's Basilica , perhaps the most recognised Christian church, was built on the site of the old Constantinian basilica. It was also a time of increased contact with Greek culture, opening up new avenues of learning, especially in the fields of philosophy , poetry, classics , rhetoric , and political science , fostering a spirit of humanism —all of which would influence the Church.
The edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. In the early 16th century, attempts were made by the theologians Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli along with many others who aimed to reform the Church. Along with some of the previous ones, they considered the root of corruptions to be doctrinal rather than simply a matter of moral weakness or lack of ecclesiastical discipline and thus advocated for monergism against voluntaristic notions that salvation could be earned by people. The word Protestant is derived from the Latin protestatio meaning declaration which refers to the letter of protestation by Lutheran princes against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in , which reaffirmed the edict of the Diet of Worms ordering the seizure of all property owned by persons guilty of advocating Lutheranism.
The beginning of the Protestant Reformation is generally identified with Martin Luther and the posting of the Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Germany. Early protest was against corruptions such as simony , the holding of multiple church offices by one person at the same time, episcopal vacancies, and the sale of indulgences. The Protestant position also included sola scriptura , sola fide , the priesthood of all believers , Law and Gospel , and the two kingdoms doctrine. The three most important traditions to emerge directly from the Protestant Reformation were the Lutheran , Reformed Calvinist , Presbyterian , etc.
The Protestant Reformation may be divided into two distinct but basically simultaneous movements, the Magisterial Reformation and the Radical Reformation. The Magisterial Reformation involved the alliance of certain theological teachers Latin: magistri such as Luther, Zwingli, Calvin , Cranmer , etc. Radical Reformers, many who were Anabaptists , besides forming communities outside state sanction, often employed more extreme doctrinal change, with some rejecting tenants of the Councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon.
Churches with Reformation confessions of faith spread almost entirely within the confines of Northern Europe, but this was checked by the Catholic response to the Reformation. This is known as the Counter-Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated in an attempt to reduce their influence within the Catholic Church, at the same time they were also persecuted during the Counter-Reformation, prompting some to live as crypto-Protestants also termed Nicodemites , against the urging of John Calvin who urged them to live their faith openly.
Martin Luther was an Augustinian monk and later priest who was professor at the University of Wittenberg. In , he nailed a list of Ninety-Five Theses , or points to be debated on the door of the church in Wittenberg and also mailed a copy to his archbishop. These points concerned the illicitness of selling indulgences. They were translated from Latin into German and distributed. In , he was asked to issue a blanked recantation of his works for heresy and lesser offenses by the papal bull Exsurge Domine. Although the bull demanded Luther burn his own works, instead he burned the papal bull Wittenberg during an incident when others had gathered together books of canon law and were burning them.
Specifically targeted in the forty one condemned statements included Luther's support for conciliarism against papal primacy , his opposition to the burning of heretics , his partial support for the teaching of Jan Hus who was burned at the stake, his anti-war stance with respect to the Ottoman Turks , his rejection of indulgences, that original sin remains after baptism , his statements against a three-part formula of repentance , the possibility of knowing and enumerating each and every one of your mortal sins for purposes of confession, his support for communion under both kinds , his rejection of the treasury of merit and purgatory , his position on free will , and a statement he made about the role of money in corruption of the church.
For most of his career, Luther tactically avoided complete identification with either Thomistic scholarship sometimes termed the "schola antiqua" or "old school"  or the "schola moderna" or "new school," which especially relied on Scotist and Franciscan epistemology. Instead, when debating he tactically took positions allying himself with one camp or the other on issues as it suited his overall purpose during debates. It was especially his intention to guard against the threat he feared the voluntarism of the increasingly popular schola moderna posed to the doctrine of justification.
Justification in the theological sense is the process by which one is "made right" righteous in the eyes of God. Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss scholar and parish priest who was likewise influential in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. Zwingli claimed that his theology owed nothing to Luther, and that he had developed it in , before Luther's famous protest, though his doctrine of justification was remarkably similar to that of the German priest. Soon he had risen to prominence in the city, and when political tension developed between most of Switzerland and the Catholic Habsburg Emperor Charles V.
In this environment, Zwingli began preaching his version of reform, with certain points as the aforementioned doctrine of justification, but others with which Luther vehemently disagreed such as the position that veneration of icons was actually idolatry and thus a violation of the first commandment, and the denial of the real presence in the Eucharist.
Meanwhile, political tensions increased; Zwingli and the Zurich leadership imposed an economic blockade on the inner Catholic states of Switzerland, which led to a battle in which Zwingli, in full armor, was slain along with his troops. John Calvin was a French cleric and doctor of law turned Protestant reformer. He belonged to the second generation of the Reformation, publishing his theological tome, the Institutes of the Christian Religion , in later revised , and establishing himself as a leader of the Reformed church in Geneva , which became a center of Reformed Christianity in the second half of the 16th century.
He exerted a remarkable amount of authority in the city and over the city council, such that he has rather ignominiously been called a "Protestant pope. Unlike other reform movements, the English Reformation began by royal influence. However, the king came into conflict with the papacy when he wished to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon , for which he needed papal sanction. Catherine, among many other noble relations, was the aunt of Emperor Charles V , the papacy's most significant secular supporter.
The ensuing dispute eventually lead to a break from Rome and the declaration of the King of England as head of the English Church. England would later experience periods of reform and also Counter-Reformation. What emerged was the Elizabethan Religious Settlement and a state church that considered itself both "Reformed" and "Catholic" but not "Roman" and hesitated from the title "Protestant" , and other "unofficial" more radical movements such as the Puritans.
In terms of politics, the English Reformation included heresy trials, the exiling of Catholic populations to Spain and other Catholic lands, censorship and prohibition of books, etc. In terms of politics, the Counter-Reformation included heresy trials, the exiling of Protestant populations from Catholic lands, the seizure of children from their Protestant parents for institutionalized Catholic upbringing, a series of wars , the Index Librorum Prohibitorum the list of prohibited books , and the Spanish Inquisition.
The Counter-Reformation also included the Catholic Reformation, which aimed at improving the Church from within. The Council of Trent — , initiated by Pope Paul III — addressed issues of certain ecclesiastical corruptions such as simony , absenteeism , nepotism , the holding of multiple church offices by one person, and other abuses, as well as the reassertion of traditional practices and the dogmatic articulation of the traditional doctrines of the Church, such as the episcopal structure, clerical celibacy , the seven Sacraments , transubstantiation the belief that during mass the consecrated bread and wine truly become the body and blood of Christ , the veneration of relics, icons, and saints especially the Blessed Virgin Mary , the necessity of both faith and good works for salvation, the existence of purgatory and the issuance but not the sale of indulgences, etc.
In other words, all Protestant doctrinal objections and changes were uncompromisingly rejected. The Council also fostered an interest in education for parish priests to increase pastoral care. Milan 's Archbishop Saint Charles Borromeo — set an example by visiting the remotest parishes and instilling high standards.
Also part of this general effort, the simultaneous Catholic Reformation consisted of improvements in art and culture, anti-corruption measures, the founding of the Jesuits , the establishment of seminaries , a reassertion of traditional doctrines and the emergence of new religious orders aimed at both moral reform and new missionary activity. Also part of this was the development of new yet orthodox forms of spirituality, such as that of the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality.
The Papacy of St. Pius V — was known not only for its focus on halting heresy and worldly abuses within the Church, but also for its focus on improving popular piety in a determined effort to stem the appeal of Protestantism. Pius began his pontificate by giving large alms to the poor, charity, and hospitals, and the pontiff was known for consoling the poor and sick, and supporting missionaries.
The activities of these pontiffs coincided with a rediscovery of the ancient Christian catacombs in Rome. As Diarmaid MacCulloch stated, "Just as these ancient martyrs were revealed once more, Catholics were beginning to be martyred afresh, both in mission fields overseas and in the struggle to win back Protestant northern Europe: the catacombs proved to be an inspiration for many to action and to heroism. Catholic missions were carried to new places beginning with the new Age of Discovery , and the Roman Catholic Church established a number of Missions in the Americas and other colonies in order to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the indigenous peoples.
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The Portuguese sent missions into Africa. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others notably Matteo Ricci 's Jesuit mission to China were relatively peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. The Galileo affair , in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy , is often considered a defining moment in the history of the relationship between religion and science.
In , Galileo published his Sidereus Nuncius Starry Messenger , describing the surprising observations that he had made with the new telescope. These and other discoveries exposed major difficulties with the understanding of the Heavens that had been held since antiquity, and raised new interest in radical teachings such as the heliocentric theory of Copernicus. In reaction, many scholars maintained that the motion of the Earth and immobility of the Sun were heretical , as they contradicted some accounts given in the Bible as understood at that time.
Galileo's part in the controversies over theology , astronomy and philosophy culminated in his trial and sentencing in , on a grave suspicion of heresy. Unlike the Spanish or French, the English colonists made surprisingly little effort to evangelise the native peoples. Though they had left England because of the suppression of their religious practice, most Puritans had thereafter originally settled in the Low Countries but found the licentiousness there, where the state hesitated from enforcing religious practice, as unacceptable, and thus they set out for the New World and the hopes of a Puritan utopia.
This is the period from the Industrial revolution and the French Revolution until the mid 19th century. See the French Republican Calendar and anti-clerical measures. Revivalism refers to the Calvinist and Wesleyan revival, called the Great Awakening , in North America which saw the development of evangelical Congregationalist , Presbyterian , Baptist , and new Methodist churches.
The First Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm among Protestants in the American colonies c. Historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom saw it as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that also created Pietism in Germany, the Evangelical Revival , and Methodism in England. The Second Great Awakening —s , unlike the first, focused on the unchurched and sought to instil in them a deep sense of personal salvation as experienced in revival meetings.
It also sparked the beginnings of groups such as the Mormons , the Restoration Movement and the Holiness movement.
The Third Great Awakening began from and was most notable for taking the movement throughout the world, especially in English speaking countries. The final group to emerge from the "great awakenings" in North America was Pentecostalism , which had its roots in the Methodist, Wesleyan, and Holiness movements, and began in on Azusa Street , in Los Angeles. Pentecostalism would later lead to the Charismatic movement. Restorationism refers to the belief that a purer form of Christianity should be restored using the early church as a model.
Restorationists do not usually describe themselves as "reforming" a Christian church continuously existing from the time of Jesus, but as restoring the Church that they believe was lost at some point. Latter Day Saints , also known as Mormons, believe that Joseph Smith was chosen to restore the original organization established by Jesus, now "in its fullness", rather than to reform the church. The history of the Church from the mid 19th century around period of the revolutions of to today. Nevertheless, the Church reform of Peter I in the early 18th century had placed the Orthodox authorities under the control of the Tsar.
An Ober-Procurator appointed by the Tsar himself ran the committee which governed the Church between and the Most Holy Synod. The Church became involved in the various campaigns of russification ,  and was accused of involvement in Russian anti-semitism. The Bolsheviks and other Russian revolutionaries saw the Church, like the Tsarist state, as an enemy of the people. This may have further strengthened the Bolshevik animus against the church. After the October Revolution of 7 November 25 October Old Calendar there was a movement within the Soviet Union to unite all of the people of the world under Communist rule see Communist International.
This included the Eastern European bloc countries as well as the Balkan States. Since some of these Slavic states tied their ethnic heritage to their ethnic churches, both the peoples and their church where targeted by the Soviet. The Soviet Union was the first state to have as an ideological objective the elimination of religion. Toward that end, the Communist regime confiscated church property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated anti-religious atheistic propaganda in the schools.
Actions toward particular religions, however, were determined by State interests, and most organised religions were never outlawed. Some actions against Orthodox priests and believers along with execution included torture being sent to prison camps , labour camps or mental hospitals. In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1, priests were executed.
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